1. Compare European imperialism in the initial period after 1450 to the colonial movement between 1750 and 1914.
European imperialism in the initial period after 1450 to the colonial movement between 1750 and 1914 had similarities and differences. In the early period, with the exception of the Americas, European imperialism was limited to cooperation with local rulers and entry into already established trade systems in Africa and Asia. Slavery and plantation products were important components of the trade. Asian commerce focused on importation of luxuries. Europe had a negative balance of trade with nations such as China because Western products were not valued. The West was not able to enforce its will through force of arms and missionary efforts had limited impact. The later colonialism accompanied Western industrialization and gave the West overwhelming military superiority. The Europeans shifted from importing luxuries and slaves to raw materials; their colonies became important markets for their manufactured goods. Political units dominated by Europeans were created. Missionaries were much more influential. Many more Europeans lived abroad and they had a feeling of racial superiority.
2. Compare and Contrast “tropical dependencies”, “White Dominions”, and “contested settler states”.
“Tropical dependencies,” White Dominions,” and “contested settler states were similar and different. Tropical Dependencies were the greater portion of the European overseas empires in Africa, Asia and the South Pacific. Here, a small group of European settlers ruled much larger proportions of the native populations. White Dominions were colonies in which European settlers made up most of the population because the natives were cleared due to disease, conquest and war. This type of holding was typical of the British in North America and Australia with growing independence later in the 19th century. Contested settler colonies had varying amounts of European settlers and native “response”. There were two primary types of colonies: tropical dependencies and settlement colonies. In the first type, small numbers of Europeans ruled large numbers of indigenous peoples. Within the settlement colonies there were two patterns. In the White Dominion, such as Canada and Australia, much of the population descended from European immigrants. In contested settler colonies, such as Algeria, Kenya, New Zealand, and Hawaii, large numbers of European immigrants vied with indigenous populations for control of the land and its natural resources. As in the White Dominions, contested settler colonies attracted large numbers of European immigrants. From their initial foothold at Cape Colony, Boer farmers penetrated the South African interior in search of farm land. Similar to the situation in Australia, the Boers found much of the interior sparsely settled and found little resistance to their advance. The Boers enslaved the first indigenous people they encountered, the Khoikhoi. Until the first decades of the nineteenth century, the experience of settlers in South Africa broadly paralleled those in Australia and Canada. The arrival of the British and their annexation of Cape Colony in 1815 set South Africa on a separate course. By the 1830s, the Boers fled the Cape Colony seeking independence and the right to continue a pattern of life now long established. In the Great Trek, the Boer population crossed the Great Fish River into the South African plains, where they encountered for the first time the Bantu states of the Zulus and Xhosa. War between the Bantu states and the Boer settlers was common during the middle decades of the nineteenth century. At the same time, the British established a second colonial outpost on the eastern coast of South Africa at Natal. In the 1850s, the Boers established two independent republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. When gold and diamonds were discovered in the Boer republics, the finds drew British investors, such as Cecil Rhodes, into the region. Relations between the British colonies and the Boer republics deteriorated until war was declared in 1899. The Boer War paved the way for decolonization in South Africa and established the political dominance of the Boers over indigenous Africans.
How did 19th Century European imperialists transform their methods of economic extraction?
The 19th century European imperialists transformed their methods of economic extraction. Through forced labor, many of the Europeans, especially Britain was able to lead a successful exportation system and trade relations with the world. Europeans depended on crops and handicraft manufacturing. Later on, the exploitation of African mines became more evident in the presence of precious metals and minerals. This plus the raw materials and farm produce already being shipped transcontinentally grew dramatically in most of the colonies.