1. Compare and contrast Japan and Russia during the process of industrialization.
The process of industrialization in Japan and Russia had similarities. The process of industrialism threatened traditional and social hierarchies in both societies. In Russia, the aristocracy was threatened by the abolition of serfdom, the creation of regional zemstvoes, and reforms of the army. In Japan, the samurai were almost destroyed by the fall of the shogunate, the destruction of feudalism, and military reform. Both nations used territorial expansion as a means of mollifying the aristocracy and building support for the imperial government.
The process of industrialization in Japan and Russia had differences. Japan did not begin until the 1890s, after industrialization, as it sought to secure sources of raw materials in Korea and Manchuria. Russian expansion began long before industrialization; one primary motive was the securing of a warm- water port.
2. What were the forces that led to the revolution in Russia in 1905?
The forces that led to the revolution in Russia in 1905 were the continuing dissatisfaction of both peasants and landowners to the Emancipation Edict of 1861. The peasants were angry at the redemption payments they were expected to pay in return for the land they had received. The landowners were also unhappy with the terms of emancipation. They lost the free labour of their serfs and a large amount of land. As a result many were facing huge debts by 1905. Another long-term cause of the 1905 Revolution was the general disappointment with which many Russian people viewed the reforms of the previous decades. As mentioned above, emancipation had promised much but delivered little. The personal weaknesses of Nicholas II should also be considered as a cause for the 1905 Revolution. Nicholas had a tendency to place the needs of his family above those of his subjects. He also lacked the strength of character of his predecessors and the general view of historians is that he played a significant part in his own downfall. The fact that he was not at the Winter Palace to receive the demonstrators petition in 1905 was arguable a mistake that damaged the long accepted view of the Tsar as the father and protector of his people. A further long-term social and economic cause of the 1905 Revolution was the worsening conditions of both peasants and urban workers. The famines in 1897, 1898 and 1901 had led to shortage and distress in the countryside. Living and working conditions in Russia’s industrial towns were no better. Workers worked in poorly ventilated factories for long hours and little pay. They had no trade unions for protection. Their homes were crowded and poorly built. Economic recession between 1899 and 1903 had also led to growing unemployment throughout the Empire.
3. To what extent did Russian and Japanese independence from the West differ with that of Lain America?
Russian and Japanese independence from the West differed with that of Latin America. Japan and Russia made conscious use of Western models in achieving industrialization and both incorporated aspects of Western culture in the process of industrialization. Both continued to trade with the West. Japan’s industrialization was more complete and accomplished with less foreign capitalization, and less foreign control of development. Japan was more economically autonomous. Russia, even after industrialization, retained some of the aspects of dependent. Both were involved in alliances that largely were the creation of Western states. The chief difference from Latin America was the successful industrialization of Russia and Japan. Latin America was less involved in Western diplomatic systems and in colonialism. There were greater similarities in cultural borrowing and the importation of Western capital.